A variety of rare anemias exist, many of which are inherited disorders that show symptoms at birth or very young age. Diagnosis can occur during their first few years of life, but many patients develop symptoms over time. These symptoms can mimic other diseases, including other rare and common anemias, and therefore delay proper diagnosis and proper treatment.
Click on enlargement icon by the anemia names to see the effects on red blood cells.
|An Illustration of Rare Anemias|
|Anemia||Trait||Age of Diagnosis||Survival Rate||Incidence||Characteristics|
Bone marrow without hematopoiesis in an aplastic anemia patient.1
|Acquired/ Inherited2||15 to 25 years old, or after 60 years old3||
10-year survival rate4:
||2 per 1,000,000 (North America and Europe; 2-3 times higher in East Asia)5|
Diamond-Blackfan anemia causes pancreatic dysfunction and bone marrow failure.13
|Inherited3||Birth to 1 year old3||
5-year survival rate7:
~7 per 1,000,0003
Bone marrow in Fanconi′s anemia shows aplastic characteristics.1
|Acquired/ Inherited3||3 to 14 years old; average 8 years old3||Median survival: 24 years8||Incidence: <1 per 100,0003|
Megakaryoblasts in a patient with myelofibrosis transforming into acute myelogenous leukemia.1
|Acquired3||59 to 69 years old3||5 years3||0.5 to 1.3 per 100,000 in Europe, Australia, and North America; 84 cases per 100,000 in Japan3|
Sideroblastic anemia: Ringed sideroblasts are the hallmark of this disease.1
|Acquired/ Inherited3||Infancy/ childhood; milder forms not until middle-age, rare onset in elderly patients3||42-76 months3||<200 published cases11||
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Learn more and get further information on rare anemias by visiting these websites:
The rate of blood transfusions can vary among rare anemias, and iron toxicity treatment should be determined relative to transfusion records and the patient′s risk. Current practice suggests that patients with aplastic and other anemias who receive multiple transfusions (10 or more) be screened for iron toxicity. These screenings include: